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分析我国涂装工艺及设备现状及发展规划

一、现状

    WOGUOSHIZHIZAOYEDAGUO,ZAIGONGYESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,TUZHUANGGONGYISHEJIDEXINGYEZHONGDUO,BAOKUOSHEJIDAOTUZHUANGGUOCHENGDESUOYOUXINGYE,RUJIDONGCHEZHIZAOYUWEIXIU、JIAJU、JIAYONGDIANQI、JINSHUZHIPINJIAGONG、CAIGANGBAN、JIZHUANGXIANG、ZAOCHUAN、DIANQISHEBEI、GUANYEDENGDENG。

    涂料行业属于新材料领域。环保涂料包括:水性涂料、粉末涂料、辐射固化涂料和高固体分涂料等。由于环保涂料等尚处于研发初期,一些关键技术问题还远没有解决。因此溶剂涂料使用量占涂料总量的50-60%。我国2009年工业涂料产量为911.4万吨,其中溶剂型涂料占60%。2010年的涂料产量产量(中国涂料工业年鉴,2011),为970万吨,其中溶剂型涂料占52.1%。每年约有350万吨(含涂装时使用的稀释剂)的VOCs在涂料的使用过程中挥发到大气中,污染浪费非常严重。由于近年来发展非常快,平均以15%速度在增长,在2012年的产量达到1200万吨以上(进出口量可以忽略不计),其中工业涂料约占70%,即840万吨左右,以此计算的VOCs排放量约在600万吨以上。成为目前我国工业VOCs排放的最大来源,对我国工业VOCs排放的影响最大。

    TUZHUANGXIANGGUANYANJIUBAOGAO

    SHENGCHANHEYINGYONGGUOCHENGZHONGHUIZAOCHENGHUANJINGWEIHAI:RUVOCPAIFANG、JIAQUANJIZHONGJINSHUCANLIU、YOULITDIHUIFADENG。WOGUOYIJINGZHIDINGLEYIXILIEQIANGZHIXINGDETULIAOGUOBIAO,QIZHONGJIN2009NIANJIUZHIXIUDINGLEYI《GB24408-2009JIANZHUYONGWAIQIANGTULIAOZHONGYOUHAIWUZHIXIANLIANG》WEIDAIBIAODE5GEQIANGZHIXINGTULIAOBIAOZHUN。TONGSHI,GUOWAIGENGJIAYANGEDEHUANBAOFAGUIDUIWOGUOTULIAOCHANPIN、YUANCAILIAONAIZHIXIAYOUDEJIADIAN、WANJU、JIAJUDENGZHONGDUANCHANPINDECHUKOUDOUSHEZHILEGENGGAODEMENJIAN。WEICIZAIZHEIYANGJIANGUANRIYIYANGEDEXINGSHIXIA,JIAQIANGTULIAOJISHUCHUANGXIN、KAIFASHENGJIHUANBAOTULIAOSHIFAZHANDEDASHISUOQU。TONGSHIDUISHIYONGCHANGGUIRONGJITULIAODEYONGHUXUJIAQIANGVOCsCHULIJISHUCHUANGXIN

    1、涂装工艺、装备现状

    我国涂装工艺及设备发展较快。在环保、节能减排和资源利用率方面差距较大。很多涂装线VOC排放量不达标,单位涂装面积的能耗量、耗水量和涂装材料耗用量都偏高,没有相应的强制政策。如我国虽是汽车生产大国,但还不是强国,汽车涂装也不例外。

    1)CHANGGUIQICHEGONGYI(WANZHENGGONGYI):

    白车身进入→前处理→电泳→电泳烘干(裂解物排放)→电泳打磨(粉尘颗粒排放)→焊缝密封(VOCs排放)→PVC车底喷胶(VOCs排放)→中涂喷涂(VOCs排放)→中涂流平(VOCs排放)→中涂烘干(VOCs排放)→中涂报交→面漆喷涂(含罩光漆)(VOCs排放)→面漆流平(VOCs排放)→面漆烘干(VOCs排放)→检查→点补(VOCs排放)→精饰→质保→空腔喷蜡(VOCs排放)→总装车间

    2)CHANGGUIQIPEIGONGYI(WANZHENGGONGYI):

    QIANCHULI→(DIANYONG→DIANYONGHONGGAN)HUO(TUOSHUIHONGGAN)→ZHONGTUPENTU→ZHONGTULIUPING→ZHONGTUHONGGAN→MIANQIPENTU→MIANQILIUPING→MIANQIHONGGAN

    3)CHANGGUIJIZHUANGXIANGGONGYI(WANZHENGGONGYI):

    PENSHA→PENXIN→ZHONGTUPENTU→ZHONGTULIUPING→ZHONGTUHONGGAN→MIANQIPENTU→MIANQILIUPING→MIANQIHONGGAN

    4)CHANGGUIJIADIANGONGYI(WANZHENGGONGYI):

    QIANCHULI→(DIANYONG→DIANYONGHONGGAN)HUO(TUOSHUIHONGGAN)→ZHONGTUPENTU→ZHONGTULIUPING→ZHONGTUHONGGAN→MIANQIPENTU→MIANQILIUPING→MIANQIHONGGAN

    QIANCHULI→TUOSHUIHONGGAN→FENMOPENTU→FENMOHONGGAN(WUVOCsPAIFANG)

    5)CHANGGUIPENQISHISHEBEI:

    DAYU95%DEPENQISHICAIYONGQUANXINFENGXINGSHIQIANGZHISONGFENG、PAIFENG,VOCsWEIDINONGDUDAFENGLIANGGAOKONGZHIJIEPAIFANG。RUCHULIVOCs,XUZENGJIAVOCsNONGSUOZHUANGZHI。

    5%PENQISHICAIYONGXUNHUANXINGSHIQIANGZHISONGFENG、PAIFENG,VOCsNONGDUXIANGDUIJIAOGAO,KECHULIHOUPAIFANG。CIXINGSHIZHISHIHEZIDONGPENQISHI,BUSHIHERENGONGPENQISHI。

    6)CHANGGUILIUPINGSHISHEBEI:

    VOCsNONGDUXIANGDUIJIAOGAO,KECHULIHOUPAIFANG。DANGUONEIZHIYOU5-10%DESHEBEIPEIZHIVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHI,ZHENGCHANGSHENGCHANSHICHULIZHUANGZHISHIYONGQINGKUANGBUMING。

    7)CHANGGUIYOUQIHONGGANSHISHEBEI:

    VOCsNONGDUXIANGDUIJIAOGAO,KECHULIHOUPAIFANG。DANGUONEIZHIYOU5-10%DESHEBEIPEIZHIVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHI,ZHENGCHANGSHENGCHANSHICHULIZHUANGZHISHIYONGQINGKUANGBUMING。

    8)CHANGGUIVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHI:

    GUONEICHANGYONGDEVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHIWEIHUOXINGTANXIFU,CUIHUARANSHAO,GAOWENFENSHAO(RTO、TNV),ZHONGWENFENSHAO(HONGGANSHIJIAREZHUANGZHIDETUOZHAN,RUSIYUANTIJIZU),FUSHE+VOCsCHULI(CIR)。

    HUOXINGTANXIFU,CUIHUARANSHAOYICITOUZIJIAODI,SHIYONGCHENGBENJIAOGAO,CHULIXIAOGUOJIAOCHA,YIBANWEIXIAOXINGSHENGCHANXIANSHIYONG,SHEBEISHIYONGLVDI。

    GAOWENFENSHAO(RTO、TNV)YICITOUZIJIAOGAO,SHIYONGCHENGBENJIAODI,CHULIXIAOGUOJIAOGAO,YIBANWEIZHONGDAXINGSHENGCHANXIANSHIYONG,SHEBEISHIYONGLVXIANGDUIJIAOGAO,TEBIESHITNVDEYUREGONGHONGGANSHISHIYONG,SHEBEISHIYONGLVHENGAO。

    2.现有问题

    1)JISHUFAZHANBUJUNHENG,HUANBAOTULIAO、XINGONGYI、XINZHUANGBEIYOUDAITIGAO

    SUIRANWOGUOYIJINGCHENGWEIZUIDADETULIAOSHENGCHANHEXIAOFEIGUO,DANHAIBUSHITULIAOKEJI、TUZHUANGGONGCHENGQIANGGUO,GUONEIQIYESHENGCHANDETULIAOPINZHONGDEJISHUSHUIPINGCENGCIBUQI,GUONEITUZHUANGGONGCHENGDEJISHUSHUIPINGCENGCIBUQI,RENGCUNZAIBIJIAODADECHAJU。YOUQISHIGELINGYUZHONGDEHUANBAOTULIAO、JIENENGJIANPAIXINGONGYI、XINZHUANGBEIDEJISHUHAIJIDAITIGAO。

    YINZHONGGUODUITUZHUANGGONGCHENGMEIYOUQIANGZHIXINGDEJIENENGJIANPAIZHENGCE,QIYEDUIYIYOUTUZHUANGSHENGCHANXIANMEIYOUGAIZAODEJIJIXING,JIENENGHUANBAODEXINTULIAO、XINGONGYI、XINZHUANGBEIYINGYONGDEBUDAOTUIGUANG。

    2)QIYEDUO,GUIMOXIAO,HUANBAOJISHURUO,HUANBAOYISHICHA

    据统计,我国目前约有8000家涂料制造企业,大多是中小企业。低水平的重复建设十分严重,生产能力过剩,人力资源低效使用,存在很大的浪费。对于高水平,高技术含量的环保涂料、环保设备投入甚少,有些企业配置环保设备但很少使用。因此,加强企业专业化、特色化引导、壮大企业规模、集中资源开发环保涂料、性价比高的环保设备是实现持续发展的重要课题。

    3)FEIHUANBAOTULIAOWEIZHUDEJUMIANHAIYOUDAIGAISHAN

    WOGUOTULIAOCHANLIANGZHONG50-60%WEIRONGJIXINGTULIAO。MEINIANKEZAOCHENGJIN350WANDUNDEHUIFAXINGYOUJIHUAHEWU(VOCs)PAIFANGDAODAQIHUANJINGZHONG,WURANLANGFEIFEICHANGYANZHONG。

    ZAISHIYONGRONGJIXINGTULIAODEQIYEZHONG,YUE95%PENQISHIDEVOCsWEIDINONGDUDAFENGLIANGGAOKONGZHIJIEPAIFANG,90%HONGGANSHI、LIUPINGSHIDEVOCsWEIGAONONGDUXIAOFENGLIANGGAOKONGZHIJIEPAIFANG,QIYUBUFENSHEZHIVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHI,DANVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHIDEJISHUCANCHABUQI,QIEYINMEIYOUZHANGXIAOJIANDUTIZHI,ZHENGCHANGSHENGCHANSHIVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHISHIYONGLVBUGAO。

    4)YIBIAOZHUNHEFAGUICUJINTULIAOYE、HUANBAOSHEBEIJIANKANGFAZHANDETIXISHANGWEIXINGCHENG

    MUQIAN,WOGUOHUANBAOTULIAOBIAOZHUNTIXI、VOCsPAIFANGTIXIHEXIANGGUANZHONGYAODEJICHUBIAOZHUNJINCHUBUJIANLI,HAIDAIWANSHAN,BIAOZHUNDELUOHOUJIANHUANLEWOGUOTULIAOYE、HUANBAOSHEBEIYUGUOJIJIEGUIDEJINCHENG,YINGXIANGLEWOGUOTULIAOYE、HUANBAOSHEBEIGUOJIJINGZHENGLIDETISHENG。

    3.涂装(喷涂)工艺废气的特点:

    (1)TONGCHANGBANSUICHANSHENGDALIANGDEGUOPENDEQIWUKELIWU;

    (2)TULIAODEZHONGLEIDUO,SHIYONGDERONGJIBUTONG,SUOHANYOUJIWUCHENGFENFUZA(TULIAOZHONGYOUJIRONGJIBAOKUO:BENLEI、MILEI、ZHILEI、TONGLEI、CHUNLEI、CHUNMILEI、TINGLEIDENGSHIJIDALEI,YIXIEDIFENZIZHUJIDOUKENENGHUIFUDAODAQIZHONG,YOUXIEBENLEI、CHUNZHILEISHUYU“SHUANGGAO”CHANLIANGHE“SANZHI”WUZHI);

    (3)PENTUGUOCHENGQIANGZHIGUIDINGQIANGZHISONG、PAIFENGZUOYE,PAIFANGFENGLIANGDA、YOUJIWUNONGDUDI。YINCITUZHUANGFEIQIDEZHILINANDUDA,ZHILICHENGBENGAO,ZHILIXIAOGUOCHA,SHIMUQIANWOGUOGONGYEVOCsPAIFANGZHILIDEYIGENANTI。

    ZAIMUQIANWOGUOSHEJIDAOTUZHUANGGONGYIDEYIXIEZHONGDIANXINGYEZHONG,RUJIDONGCHEZHIZAOYUWEIXIU、JIAJU、JIADIAN、JIXIEZHUANGBEIZHIZAO、GUANYE、ZAOCHUAN、JIZHUANGXIANGDENGDENG,PENTUFEIQIDEZHILIGONGZUOJINNIANLAIGANGGANGQIBU,ZHIYOUHENSHAOYIBUFENDEFEIQIDEDAOLEZHILI,ERQIEXIANYOUZHILISHEBEIDEYUNXINGXIAOLVDI,YUNXINGZHUANGKUANGCHA,JIANPAIXIAOGUOCHA。YOUYUWOGUOSHIZHIZAOYEDAGUO,ZAIVOCsPAIFANGLIANGDADECHANPINZHONGWURANXINGYEZHONG,RUJIAJUZHIZAO、JIZHUANGXIANG、ZAOCHUAN、QICHE、JIADIANDENGDENGJUNZAISHIJIESHANGZHANYOUHENGAODEFENE。YINCI,ZAIJINHOUWOGUODEGONGYEGUDINGYUANVOCsJIANPAIZHONG,TUZHUANGFEIQIDEZHILISHIZHONGZHONGZHIZHONG。

    二、发展规划

    YIJIEGOUDIAOZHENGHEFAZHANFANGSHIZHUANBIANWEIZHUXIAN,SHISHI“DIAOZHENGZHUANXING、CHUANGXINSHENGJI”DEZHANLVE,ZAIGUOJIAXIANGGUANZHENGCEDAOXIANGXIA,ZHELIDIAOZHENGCHANYEJISHUJIEGOUHEQIYEZUZHIJIEGOU,JIAQIANGZIZHUCHUANGXINHEXINGCHENGZIZHUJISHU、BIAOZHUNHEPINPAI,JIADAPEIYUFAZHANXINXINGHUANBAOTULIAOPINZHONG,TUIGUANGXINGONGYI、XINZHUANGBEIYINGYONG,JIAKUAIDUIYIYOUJIENENGHUANBAOFANGMIANJIAOCHATUZHUANGSHENGCHANXIANDEGAIZAO。

    1)JIAKUAIFAZHANHUANBAOXINGTULIAOCHANPIN

    RONGJITULIAO:QICHECHANPINZAITUZHUANGGUOCHENGZHONG,TULIAOCHENGBENBUDAOZHENGGETUZHUANGCHENGBENDE20%,QIYU80%SHITUZHUANGGUOCHENGZHONGSUOXIAOHAODECHENGBEN。YINCIJIANGDITULIAOZHONGHUIFAXINGYOUJIWU(VOC)HANLIANG、SUODUANTUZHUANGGONGYILIUCHENG,YOUHUATUZHUANGXIANBUJU,HELIANPAISHENGCHAN,TIGAOCHANPINDEYICIHEGELV,KEJIANGDIZHENGCHECHENGBENBINGJIENENGHUANBAO。

    HUANBAOTULIAO:TUIGUANGSHUIXINGHUA、WURONGJIHUA(FENMOTULIAO、FUSHEGUHUATULIAO)HEGAOGUTIFENHUADENGXINJISHUYINGYONG。

    2)TUIGUANGXINGONGYI、XINZHUANGBEIYINGYONG

    RUZHENDUIZHENGCHETUZHUANG,TUIGUANGZHENGCHETUZHUANGMIANZHONGTUGONGYI,TONGSHIQUXIAOLEZHONGTUDAMOGONGXU、SUOJIANLETUZHUANGSHENGCHANXIAN、JIANGDILEHUANJINGWURAN,JIANSHAOLEFEIQIWUDEPAIFANGLIANG。

    TUIGUANGCAIYONGZIDONGPENTUZHUANGZHI,JIANGDIYOUQIGUOPENLIANG(JIANGDIYOUQIXIAOHAOLIANG),CAIYONGXUNHUANXINGSHIDESONGPAIFENGZHUANGZHIBINGPEIZHIVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHI。

    TUIGUANGGAOXIAOJIENENGDEVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHI,JIANGDISHIYONGCHENGBEN。

    3)JIAKUAIYIYOUTUZHUANGSHENGCHANXIANDEGAIZAO

    ZHONGGUOMUQIANYIYOUDEDABUFENDETUZHUANGSHENGCHANXIANDEGONGYI、ZHUANGBEIJISHUXIANGDUIJIAOCHA,QIEWUVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHI,HUANJINGWURANHENDA,TONGGUOGUOJIAXIANGGUANDEZHENGCEDAOXIANG,DUICISHENGCHANXIANJINXINGGAIZAOSHENGJI,SHIJIANGDIVOCsPAIFANGDEZHONGZHONGZHIZHONG。

    4)JIAKUAIZHIDINGXIANGGUANDEGUOJIAZHENGCE,DUIVOCsCHULI、PAIFANGYOUMINGQUEGUIDING,DUIVOCsCHULIZHUANGZHIDESHIYONGQINGKUANGJIANLIZHANGXIAOJIANDUTIZHI.



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